Countdown to 'Indecency' Decision by Supreme Court

The Indecency Page

Senator Smoot (Republican, Ut.)
Is planning a ban on smut
Oh rooti-ti-toot for Smoot of Ut.
And his reverent occiput.
Smite. Smoot, smite for Ut.,
Grit your molars and do your dut.,
Gird up your l--ns,
Smite h-p and th-gh,
We'll all be Kansas
By and By.
(Ogden Nash , "Invocation," 1931)

The Indecency Page is dedicated to making fun of the Communications Decency Act in as many ways as humanly possible.

This page has been accessed 68279 times between the time it was established in January 1996 through April 1997; it was last updated 10 May 1998. True to our motto, "Indecency Never Sleepeth", we are continually adding and updating our inventory of indecency for your prurient enjoyment. Search for "[NEW]" to find new or updated items.

Aggregate Chill Factors (as of 22 February 1996):

The Table of Indecent Contents

Prelude to Indecency

In 1996,he U.S. House and Senate have passed legislation outlawing indecency on the internet--the so-called Communications Decency Act. In 1997 the Supreme Court struck the law down--and hard.

As Congress was debating the CDA, I posted this page as a protest against the Communications Decency Act in particular, and against the idea of government control of communication in general. The page contained material which most people consider innocuous or even inspiring, yet which seemed to my legally untrained mind to clearly fall under the legal category of "indecent."

Then Congress passed the Act, and under its terms I would have liable for $200,000 fines and/or 10 year jail sentences for posting to the World-wide Web these excerpts from the Bible, literature, and art. Naturally, with this sort of a threat over my head, I did not leave the "indecent" material online. Some of it I removed, other I "censored"--in order to give a good idea of what great works of art may look like when governments are allowed to control them. Also I ranted and raved about the Act and its effect on public discourse on the Internet, and even found one tiny loophole which allowed me to continue to display my horribly indecent bible excerpts and so on despite the Communications Decency Act (I simply displayed them in a time frame that fell between 12 midnight and 5 AM for all U.S. time zones--the Supreme Court in its infinite wisdom has specifically allowed the presentation of indecent material during that time).

Censored and Ranting . . . or Original Flavor

In memory of that time of censorship, and in recognition that many governments across the world (including several U.S. states and the U.S. Congress, which seems incapable of learning a lesson) are still trying to censor online communication, I am leaving the censored and ranting version of The Indecency Page here for the foreseeable future.

You can find the original version of The Indecency Page here (look at it quick, before they ban it again!).

My Opinion

Before sending me flames and hate mail, please note that I am not in favor of indecency, naughtiness, nastiness, bad words, rude behavior, or blasphemy. I do not promote pornography or obscenity. I do not believe that the Bible is a horrible rotten nasty mean sick book, despite the indisputable fact that the United States Congress has officially declared it to be so.

In fact, I do personally believe that people should refrain as far as possible from saying indecent, naughty, nasty, bad, or rude words and from taking, publishing, or viewing naughty, nasty, and generally nude pictures. People should spend more time reading the Bible (except for the naughty, nasty, rude, crude, and nude parts which they should blot out with a heavy black marker and then staple the pages together so as to avoid trying to guess what lies beneath the blotted out parts*) and less time viewing Baywatch.

People should personally try to do all these things, and I applaud them if they do. But government should keep its big fat not-very-intelligent and very-heavy-handed butt** out of it. It's none of their business.

That is my opinion.

(If you want to see plenty of good reasons why the government should keep their big grubby hands off our communications, you might want to check out the Digital Freedom Network.)


(*I had a friend who actually did this to his Bible, but that is a story for another occasion . . . )

(**Now that I am officially and legally allowed to, I just can't restrain myself from making offensive references to sex and excretion whenever possible.)

Know Your Indecency . . .

Exactly what is indecent, and what may we and may we not do with our indecency? Enquiring minds want to know . . .

Compressed down into a very small nutshell, the Communications Decency Act says:

  1. You can't send indecent material to people under the age of 18.
  2. You can't make available indecent material in such a way that people under the age of 18 can access it (i.e., on a WWW site or a usenet newsgroup).
  3. You can't advertise the existence of indecent material that is available to people under the age of 18.
  4. Internet Service Providers cannot knowingly allow their equipment to be used to do #1, #2, or #3 (ISPs are off the hook if they don't know about it).
What is indecent material? This is somewhat up in the air, but based on similar wording in other legislation, the FCC currently deems indecent "all explicit references to such things as masturbation, ejaculation, breast size, penis size, sexual intercourse, nudity, urination, oral-genital contact, erections, sodomy, bestiality, menstruation and testicles." [Note that this list itself is undoubtedly indecent. However, despite the fact that several of our highly trained scientists here at The Indecency Page have been working on the problem day and night for over two weeks, we have not yet figured out how to tell you exactly what is banned without making explicit reference to the banned items. So sue us.]

While the rest of us head off to enjoy the indecency (knowing now how illegal it is has undoubtedly increased our anticipation a hundredfold), the masochists in the group may wish to make a small diversion here and flail yourselves with the Medium-To-Medium-Large-Nutshell Version Of What the CDA prohibits. Hardened sado-masochists will also wish to arm themselves with The Complete And Unexpurgated Version Of What The CDA Prohibits, Including Many Diverse Opinions And Other Ramblings (try THIS on your friends to reduce them instantly to a whimpering pile of blubber).

News Flash!

The crack legal team here at The Indecency Page has been working its collective fingers to the bone analyzing, rationalizing, codifying, and eulogizing all relevant laws, decisions, and pertinent FCC regulations (not to mention a few impertinent ones). And today, the breakthrough! Our team of legal experts has devised an extraordinarily sophisticated approach to identifying and repelling juveniles from those areas from which they are legally banned. And, undoubtedly through some bureaucratic screw-up, this incredible loophole has ALREADY BEEN APPROVED BY THE FCC! Yes! APPROVED! Ready and waiting for anyone and everyone on the internet to put it to use!

Well, I scarcely need to add that our highly trained Interactive Applications Group here at The Indecency Page got right on the job, wrote the necessary scripts, programs, mark-up codes, compilers, and operating systems in a flash, and wah-lah! The Indecency Page is once again available in its fully indecent glory to APPROVED AND AUTHORIZED ADULTS ONLY, exactly as the law written by our revered and esteemed congressmen and -woman allows. Praise be to Yahveh and the FCC! Click here for more information and to prove your adulthood!

Older newsflashes are still available.

The Official Pre-Indecency Agreement [NEW]

Our erstwhile congressmen and -woman have decided that we cannot let just anyone into the following indecent precincts. No--only those who have reached the highly mature and commendable age of 18 may enjoy the pleasures that here await.

Only one slight and certainly insignificant problem gives us pause. Just exactly how is the highly trained and dedicated staff here at The Indecency Page to determine WHICH of you, our dearly beloved readers, is above the ripe old age of 18? Should we lurk around in our ISP's router, trying to reverse-engineer everyone's b****date from their IP numbers? [CENSORED: Explicit reference to the explicit and inevitable result of undeniable sexual activity.] Should we require phone numbers from everyone so we can call their mother and see if they're allowed? Should we ask cleverly worded questions to which only over-18-year-olds know the correct answer ("Is the term 'Rap Music' an oxymoron?", "Who is smarter, you or your parents?", etc.).

No, no. None of these ever-so-clever methods is necessary. Our foresightful congressmen and -woman have solved this hairy problem for us in advance. Based on the astute analysis of Section 47 U.S.C. 223(e)(5)(B) performed by our highly trained legal staff here at The Indecency Page, it seems that our all-wise, all-knowing legislators have made the following Official Congressionally Approved Age Verification Methods available for proving your legal majority and subsequent right to enjoy indecency and the other pleasures of life that are restricted from minors so they won't get too uppity. Please select the most convenient method to fit your busy lifestyle:

  1. Send us your credit card number. Now the law REQUIRES us to VERIFY this credit card number. We apologize most sincerely in advance, but the only reliable way our corporate bean-counters could figure out to verify your credit card number is to charge some hefty amount to it. If the charge comes through OK, then we know it's a good'un. So, thanks for selecting Official Congressionally Approved Method #1, and don't worry--we'll let you know how much you donated.
  2. Open a debit account with The Indecency Page. OK, here's how this works. You send us a nice fat check payable in Officially Approved Adults-Only Dollars. No Immature Juvenile Dollars accepted--Adult Dollars only, please. Just to be on the safe side, and as an added Official Verification Method, make it out for enough that it's pretty obvious that no snot-nosed kid could afford to pay that much on the sort of allowance parents are paying these days. Then, besides being granted access to the Top Secret Adults-Only Indencies of The Indecency Page, you can also use your Official Congressionally Approved Indecency Page Debit Account to buy any and/or all of the fine Top-Secret Top-Quality Indecent and Illicit Merchandise that you have certainly noticed being offered for sale here on The Indecency Page.
  3. Send me your Officially Approved Adult Personal Identification Number. The Officially Approved Adult Personal Identification Number is a Top Secret number handed out to adults only upon reaching the age of adulthood. Never heard of it? Well, then. You're not really an adult, are you? You were trying to pull the wool over the eyes of the staff here at The Indecency Page so you could sneak a look at all our titillating little tidbits, weren't you? Well, you might as well give up now. The highly trained staff here at The Indecency Page has become so adept at intercepting illicit Adult Personal Identification Numbers that you don't have a whisker's chance in Hell of getting in thataway. Those who have and know the Officially Approved Adult Personal Identification Number, however, are heartily invited to send it in for immediate access.
  4. Direct verification. OK, none of the Official Congressionally Approved Methods working for you so far? Have bad credit, don't need Indecent Merchandise, forgot the Officially Approved Adult Personal Identification Number and can't find anybody who'll tell it to you again? Well, then Official Congressionally Approved Method Number 4 is for you! All you have to is show up at The Indecency Page Wordwide Corporate Headquarters here at 5916 Arlington Avenue, Raytown, Missouri, USA. Bring along with you a currently valid Driver's License, official copy of your birth certificate, valid passport, and an official signed, legally notarized statement specifying that you are above 18 years of age and further that you will not divulge any of the Top Secret Contents of The Indecency Page to anyone who has not been certified an adult by Official Congressionally Approved Method Number 1, 2, 3, or 4. Then, after our highly trained staff here at The Indecency Page World Corporate Headquarters has verified and cross-checked your identity, age, marital status, and criminal record with the FBI, CIA, NSA, KGB, Driver's License Bureau, and State Property Tax Commission (a simple process taking only a few short days), you will immediately be issued your own private, personal, Top Secret Adult Personal Access Code which you are not to divulge to anyone under any circumstances under penalty of law.
  5. FLASH! Time of Day Verification! FLASH! Although The Indecency Page's crack software development team has been working day and night, you have probably noticed that they have not been able to get any of the previous four clever and oh-so-reliable adulthood verification methods actually working on a real computer. But don't give up yet! Our top-flight legal team, in close collaboration with the FCC and taking into account many important Supreme Court decisions, has come up with a real, workable, and best of all, FCC approved verification method! Yes! YES!! YES!!! Gird up your loins and click here to prove your adulthood and view the TOTALLY UNCENSORED, ADULTS-ONLY VERSION OF THE INDECENCY PAGE! WARNING! Do not attempt to access this link unless you are ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN that you are a bona-fide, notarized adult! Duplicity will be immediately detected and dealt with using the HARSHEST POSSIBLE LEGAL REMEDIES!

    NOTE to anyone who strongly feels like an adult, yet somehow managed to fail Adulthood Verification Method #5: Adulthood Verification Method #5 relies on a TIME-tested (wink) and infallible property of juveniles (wink wink) which has been confirmed by the FCC and Supreme Court and which is enforced upon all juveniles without exception, by their mommies and daddies (wink wink Wink WINK wINk wiNK wInk). So if you failed the first time around, you might wish to try again at a different TIME (WINK WINK w-WINK!) such as that which the S-U-P-R-E-M-E C-O-U-R-T (wink-wink-wink-wink-wink) has determined that no helpless children are engaging in rotten or naughty behaviours (winkawinkawinkawinkwink!). P.S. This entire note has been a big fat H-I-N-T (wink-wink) to adults only, that no child will ever be clever enough to figure it out, because at the only TIME OF DAY (yaaaaaaAAAWWWWWWWWwwnnnnn!) (W-wink, W-wink, w-WINK!) when it will do them any good, they will undoubtedly be feeling too SLEEPY-HEADED, GROGGY, and GRUMPY ((WINK!)) to figure out such a clever H-I-N-T.

    Minor Legal Note: Our crack legal team noted one small loophole in our Adulthood Detector: It only bars U.S. juveniles from the page. Foreign juveniles will be able to get in like crazy. We asked our resident expert on foreign relations, A.N. Oughtsee, for his advice on handling this matter. A.N.'s down-to-earth and sensible reply:

    Ah jist hard frum mah frien' heer down t'th' 'Mercan Leejun thut uh pack-uh goldurned furreners been lookint this yeer infermashun. [Editor's Note: Mr. Oughtsee seems to be operating under the delusion that any large building where groups of people get together to talk, play bingo, and eat lunch is called "The American Legion". We have tried many times to cure him of this annoying trait, but he continues to refer to Indecency World Headquarters as "The American Legion". We find it slightly ironic, but oh, well . . .] Now ahm warnin' yuh, this yeer page is made fer Red Blewded 'dult 'Mericans ONLY! So if yuh ain't a 'Mercan, GIT LOST! GIT! Me an' good ol' Pat Buchanan is workin' on a way t'keep th'whole messa slimy grimy furreners frum layin' their grubby ol' eyes on this yeer stuff, but we ain't got it purficted yet, so in the meanerwhile, JEST GIT! GIT!! GIT!!!! An I'm warnin' yuh, too, thut yer furren juvenal deleenquints ain't cunsiderd citizens a'this yeer cuntry, an' so they ain't gwin be locked out bah our otherwise infalluble 'dult detectuhr. U.S. Consitooshun jes' plain don't apply to'em. An' anyhows, me an' Pat don't rilly give a dam wether yer buncha slimygrimy li'l rugrats look ut this yeer stuff. Hell, buncha goldurnd furreners could probly be doin' lot worse'n this'n their spare time. I 'spect a buncha thankfool furren parents is gonna be writtin' me a buncha letters thankin' me fur given their packa li'l useless twerps somethun holesum to look at, 'mpared to the thievin' un' lyin' they's us'lly engagin' in this tima day. --A.N.O.

OK now. We all feel ever-so-much-better now that we are in full compliance with the ever-so-well-thought out laws that our all-wise, all-knowing legislators have seen fit to inflict upon us.

Indecent Beans Give . . . [NEW]

As you all well know by now, The Indecency Page is run by a gargantuous multi-national multi-global multi-continental multi-humongous corporate glob-type company, with quadrullions of dollars, pesos, etc., in daily income and several small military dictatorship-type countries under its immediate control. You may not know, however, that the main purpose of The Indecent Multi-Globular Holding Company (or "Imu-Glo-Ho" as we affectionately call it here at the beautiful 69 story Multi-Globular Towers/World Indecency Headquarters), as outlined in the detailed 42-page Official Globular Corporate Vision Statement, is NOT in fact to distribute a lot of lewd lascivious filth and indecency, but rather to rake in buckets of cash as fast as possible so that our Multi-Globular Board of Directors and their specially invited scantily clad guests can spend the majority of their time vacationing in the lap of luxury in the Bahamas and other such-like places that filthy rich corporate-board type people like to vacation at.

So, to make a long story short, the Multi-Globular Corporate Accounting Department here at Imu-Glo-Ho decided to mobilize its substantial financial resources to determine just exactly how much moolah our ever-beloved congressmen and -woman had cost us in enacting this vital piece of legislation. The Official Corporate Report is here presented for your perusal. I do not wish to alarm any of our highly valued stockholders, but Dean Witter Reynolds did downgrade Imu-Glo-Ho's previously rip-roaring stock from "Buy" to "Sell like crazy!" on receipt of this report, and our esteemed Multi-Globular Board of Directors and specially invited scantily clad guests were immediately cabled and instructed to return from their luxurious vacations 0.154 days earlier than scheduled.

Official Multi-Globular Corporate Accounting Department Report

Processing Costs: The Indecency Page, 300 hits per day

Each of the 300 daily browsers will be required to mail or email corporate headquarters, or visit in person to positively establish age. Assuming that 100 persons will verify via email, 100 via postal service, and 100 via personal visit, the Multi-Globular Accounting Departments estimates costs at:
Email (100 per day: read email, process credit card, process email reply):
100 people x 5 minutes each = 8.33 hours per day, 7 days per week = 1.46 full-time positions plus office space and equipment.
Mail (100 per day: read mail, process application, mail reply):
100 people x 5 minutes each = 8.33 hours per day, 7 days per week =1.46 full-time positions plus office space and equipment.
Postage, paper, and envelopes for 100 replies = $100 per day
In Person (100 per day: meet person, verify identification, process application):
100 people x 10 minutes each = 16.67 hours per day, 7 days per week = 2.9 full-time positions plus waiting rooms, office space, and equipment.
5.83 full-time positions: Salary, expenses, and benefits for minimum wage workers = $81,867.24 annually
Office space and equipment for 5.83 full time positions: $40,933.62 annually
Mailing costs: $36,500 annually
Grand Total: $159,300.86 annually

Whew. It's a good thing The Indecency Page is run by a humongous multi-national multi-globular company that can absorb these costs with only a 0.154 day reduction in luxurious vacation allowance! If we were just some li'l old two-bit company run outa somebody's basement or something, well, we'd probably go right on under. Well, "Survival Of The Fittest", that's our multi-globular company motto here at Imu-Glo-Ho, and with a little help from our good friends^H^H^H^H^H er, I mean casual acquaintances--purely by chance, you know--down at the House and the Senate, it looks we've managed to make our motto work for us.

And as for the rest of you . . . well, sorry Charlie. Better luck next time.

About a month ago, learning by chance from one of our casual acquaintances down at Capitol Hill that indecency was soon to be tightly regulated and restricted, the highly trained and experienced staff here at The Indecency Page suddenly started thinking back to our freshman economics class. Let's see . . . supply reducing . . . demand increasing . . . price . . . now how did that work again? . . . price down? . . . price same? . . . no, no, no: PRICE SKYROCKETS! That's it! Jackpot!!!!

With little dollars signs floating continuously around in ours eyes, or crack staff here at the Indecency Division began a frantic worldwide search for cybersmut--you know, that stuff that everybody just knows is lurking around every corner of cyberspace--and other such nasties and naughties as infallibly would bring the public streaming into our corporate headquarters, and keep the cash streaming at high speed into our corporate coffers. It didn't take long--we soon found a whole collection of titillating cyber-indecency, and thus we have . . .

Indecency Exposed!


All of the items in this section WERE indecent, annoying, otherwise naughty. But now, thanks to the Communications "Decency" Act, they have all been stripped bare and/or sent to outer oblivion. In other words, we have either censored them or simply remarked out the HTML links so that it is completely and utterly impossible for you to follow them now, especially if you are a child or other similar person with underdeveloped mental capacity.

You are welcome to snoop around the page trying to imagine what you COULD HAVE seen, way back when the First Amendment was still the law of our fair land. Or, you can go ahead and use Official Congressionally Approved Adult Verification Method Number 1, 2, 3, 4 and/or 5, in which case you will get your Official Congressionally Approved Top Secret Adult Indecent Access Code, which will immediately allow you to once again enjoy all the filth and sleaze available here at The Indecency Page.

In the meanwhile . . . read'em and weep:


Local indecencies. This is our own personal stash of indecency that we maintain here at Indecency World-Wide Headquarters:

Worldwide Indecency. These are particularly juicy items that our dedicated and hard-working staff have found in our worldwide computer search for cyber-smut. Although we do not maintain these items, we offer this list of links for your prurient enjoyment:

More to come--this page is still under construction. Feel free to email me with suggestions--but act now. This opportunity to express your favorite indecency won't last long . . .

Afterglow; or, What You Will Want to Do After Enjoying the Indecency

The onus is on us to determine whether free societies in the twenty-first century will conduct electronic communication under the conditions of freedom established for the domain of print through centuries of struggle, or whether that great achievement will become lost in a confusion of new technologies.
--Ithiel de Sola Pool

If you wish to find out more about indecency on the net, check out . . .

EFM LogoAn Electronic Freedom March on Washington is being organized by John Wash. You can help by publicizing the march on your web page or .sig, volunteering to help, or donating money or equipment. [NEW]

If you wish to do something about the indecency, or lack thereof, contact . . .

Please note that personal meetings with your senators and representatives are most effective, followed by letters, phone calls, faxes, and (dead last) email. Please do SOMETHING even if it's less effective, but if you can muster the time and energy, do something towards the more effective end of the list.

The Chill Factor

It is possible that a court would not find every single item on this page to be indecent. After a couple of years of court battles, a few hundred thousand dollars of legal bills, appeal after appeal, and hundreds of hours of anguish and uncertainty, perhaps some of the items would be determined to be decent, after all.

But the simple fact is, I cannot take that chance. I cannot accept the personal, financial, and career risks a court battle would involve. So, if the Telecommunications Bill passes with its indecency ban intact, I will be removing all indecent passages from this page. And, since I am not certain what a court will or will not find to be indecent, I will be removing everything that has even remote chance of being found indecent. I, as well as everyone else on the Internet who fears the legal system, will be exercising self-censorship with a very broad brush indeed.

This is what constitutional lawyers refer to as a "chilling effect". In the face of legal uncertainty, expression is self-censored, perhaps beyond even what the law demands, simply because ordinary citizens are left to interpret the law for themselves and choose the course legally and financially most prudent.

Thus, I have calculated a Chill Factor for each link I maintain on the Indecency Page. The Chill Factor is simply the percentage of text I have removed to comply with indecency provisions in the current law. I also calculate an Aggregate Chill Factor, which is simply the Chill Factor of all links taken together Low Chill Factors are good (0%=no censorship); high Chill Factors are bad (100%=total censorship).

You will be able to see which passages I have removed, because I will simply block the passage out with asterisks. In brackets will be a brief explanation of why the passage was removed, like so:

**** *** ***** *** ** **** *** ******* *** ***** **** ***** ** *** ***** *** *** ****** **** ** ** ***** *** *** ** ** *** ********. [CENSORED: Explicit and apparently approving reference to excretory function.]

There is a question as to whether these brief explanations may themselves be indecent (in fact, the Communications Decency Act may be indecent, since it dwells at some length on those things which it intends to ban), but I'll leave that for the lawyers to figure out. Note that you cannot simply block out a single indecent word or even a phrase; the result may still be found to be indecent. Thus I will leaving enough in so that you can definitely tell that something is missing, but I will certainly be removing enough that you could never guess what it is that has been removed.

BTW, the above should not be taken to mean that I am against non-violent civil disobedience in this matter. In fact, if it weren't illegal, I might actually encourage civil disobedience. But--if I were to engage in such, er, shady activities, I'm certainly not stupid enough to do it right here on my web page where I can be tracked down so easily <heh, heh>.

A Chilling History

As the law changes, either by legislation or court action, I will list here the resulting Aggregate Chill Factor of The Indecency Page.

A Notice . . .

To Legal Officials

As far as I know, The Indecency Page is currently legal. If you wish to track down indecency, I would suggest that you head down to your nearest public library and track it down to your heart's content. Every indecent item posted here will be found in any large public library--and where I make available mere excerpts, the library will have the entire item available in its fully indecent glory.

If, however, after repeated trips to the library, you still wish to investigate the indecency on this page, you are quite welcome to do so. If you feel that anything here is illegal and must be removed, I will gladly comply. I make only two simple requests:

  1. You must tell me exactly which law is being broken. Please include the reference as well as the full text of the law.
  2. You must make specific recommendations about which words, sentences, or paragraphs are illegal, and how I must change them to make them legal.
When I have received these two items, I will cheerfully make any and all changes requested, complete with a note as to why I made the change, which specific law it broke, and who suggested I make the change.

To University Officials

As far as I know, The Indecency Page currently complies with all University guidelines on computer and internet use. If you wish to track down indecency, I would suggest that you head on down to the Miller Nichols Library--where I found all the indecency I posted here--and track it down to your heart's content. Where I have made available mere excerpts, the Miller Nichols Library will has the entire items available in their fully indecent glory--as well as many other indecent and annoying items to keep you occupied.

If, however, after repeated trips to the library, you still wish to investigate the indecency on this page, you are quite welcome to do so. If you feel that anything here is against university guidelines and must be removed, I will gladly comply. I make only two simple requests:

  1. You must tell me exactly which guideline is being broken. Please include the reference as well as the full text.
  2. You must make specific recommendations about which words, sentences, or paragraphs are contrary to the guidelines, and how I must change them to make them conform to the guidelines.
When I have received these two items, I will cheerfully make any and all changes requested, complete with a note as to why I made the change, which specific guideline it broke, and who suggested I make the change.

You are encouraged to copy all or any part of these pages and put them to any reasonable non-commercial use. Material may be forwarded to mailing lists, sent to individuals, put on your own home page, or anything else you can think of that would be helpful. I of course appreciate it if you give credit where it is due, but I won't even require that . . .
The keeper of this page is Brent Hugh (BHugh@CSTP.UMKC.EDU ). Feel free to email him with any questions about, problems with, or complaints regarding the page. You can visit Brent Hugh's Home Page or his Music Instruction Software Page.


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